Principle of the solution

The principal idea behind the entire system is having 90% of employees on site with 10% of correct knowledge rather than having 10% of employees with 90% of correct knowledge (as they will likely be absent when an emergency occurs). The employees must be able to give first aid quickly and efficiently and without complications. The entire system must leave a minimum opportunity for errors, which means it must be versatile and, again, simple. 

 

Boundary conditions

 

CORRECTLY APPLIED FIRST AID
Any help provided to a patient must be applied correctly. Always do only what is useful and helps the patient, and cannot harm them. 

FIRST AID APPLIED FAST
Speed is one of the most important parameters. If we fail to give help in good time, the patient will likely not need it any more. This is why the knowledge has to be distributed to as many people as possible. 

EFFICIENTLY USED RESOURCES
Efficiency is in maximising the resultant effect with regard to the boundary conditions. In the Czech Republic the boundary conditions are in particular:
• Professional medical rescuers should arrive within 20 minutes at the latest
• Assisted first aid is provided via telephone on number 155

ACCESSIBILITY
It is necessary to provide the requisite access to first aid equipment for all employees in the production process.

ELIMINATING FREQUENT MISTAKES IN GIVING FIRST AID
When an emergency occurs people often respond incorrectly and situations are not addressed optimally. What happens is this:

• People look on but do not act because they are afraid to help;
• People help but the help is inefficient because they lack the required knowledge;
• People help and have the required knowledge but lack the equipment they need.

LIFE SAVING ACTIONS
There are just a few life saving actions in real life situations. They must not be delayed, and if they are not done death is inevitable. By contrast, if we do them we will save a life.
Other, less serious injuries need not be addressed at first and can be taken care of later. This is difficult because such conditions may be painful, ugly and unpleasant, but they do not threaten the patient’s life – which is why we will not focus on them at the moment and will leave them to experts providing specialised care later.

PRIORITIES
The ATLS® (Advanced Trauma Life Support) Protocol was defined for addressing poly-traumatic conditions in 1978, and it was later modified for military purposes as the BATLS (Battlefield Advanced Trauma Life Support) Protocol.
In the construction industry, the BATLS Protocol is closer to real-life situations and application, and it is based on Safar’s ABC of resuscitation, according to which massive external bleeding (mainly from limbs) is the most frequent cause of death in the field.

BATLS PROTOCOL
ATLS® and BATLS are based on the principle of defining the priorities and the procedure where the correct execution of the individual steps achieves the required objective - saving human life.

SETTING THE PRIORITIES: CABCDE
Catastrophic bleeding    (massive external bleeding)
Airway            (clearing airways)
Breathing        (ensuring respiration)                     
Circulation        (internal bleeding)                            
Disability        (neurological condition)
Environment        (overall examination, environment)

The ATLS® and BATLS protocols are obviously designed for medical personnel and alternatively for the military – but that does not mean they cannot be applied at a workplace or construction site. 

SAFE-POINT
Result is a comprehensive system involving the knowledge required to give first aid as well as the aids required for giving it. The SAFE-POINT system includes employee training. 
In practice, SAFE-POINT is used so that, if an accident occurs, a rescuer will run to the SAFE-POINT box, break the hardened glass and take the rescue belt. Then the rescuer will run back and proceed step by step, following the instructions in the belt.